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POL 250: Model United Nations: Theory and Practice

Cerritos  College

Fall 2019

POL 250: Model United Nations: Theory and Practice


COURSE SYLLABUS (This is a tentative syllabus, there MAY be changes made to Assignments as the semester progresses)

OFFICE: Social Science Building, Room 217 (SS-217)
PHONE: (562)860-2451 ext.2754
OFFICE HOURS: MTW 12:30pm-1:30pm; and also by appointment                         

In every class session, be prepared to LEARN, RETAIN, AND SHARE (LRS)

This course introduces students to the theory and practice of international diplomacy through participation in Model United Nations simulations.  It explores the purpose and functions of international organizations with emphasis on the United Nations.  It examines the historical development, norms, rules and procedures of the United Nations.  Students will debate major issues of the organization; learn parliamentary procedures, diplomacy, international advocacy and extemporaneous speaking.  The simulation activities in this course will afford students the opportunity to role-play as delegates representing specific countries.

May be repeated twice for a total of 6 units in 2 different semesters.
Class hours: 3 lecture (54 lecture)
Units: 3 units
Prerequisite: None
Transfer credit: CSU
Recommendation: Completion of ENGL 52, or ENGL 72, or ESL 152, or equivalent with a grade of “C” or higher, or “Pass”, or completion of the placement process with eligibility for ENGL 100 and READ 54 with a grade of "C" or higher, or “Pass,” and completion of the placement process with a score sufficient to meet the AA Reading Proficiency requirement.

Students Learning Outcomes (SLOs):

  1. Students will be able to recognize critical issues relevant to the Model United Nations.
  2. Students will be able to compare and contrast strategies and tactics used in the debate of international issues, and the procedures for settling international disputes.
  3. Students will be able to demonstrate the ability to speak extemporaneously on assigned topics as well as practice parliamentary procedures used in Model United Nations simulation activities.
  4. Students will be able to identify international organizations; their institutions, structure, and functions.

Class lectures, discussions, occasional films/videos, group assignments, debates, simulations, and written assignments will be utilized.

The following book is required for this course, and available in the Cerritos College Bookstore.

Moore, jr. John Allphin and Jerry Pubantz. The New United Nations: International Organizations in the Twenty-First Century. Second Edition, 2017 Published by Routledge. ISBN: 978-1-138-18580-7
***(Returning students) Weiss, Thomas G. and Rorden Wilkinson. International Organization and Global Governance. Routledge 2018. ISBN: 978-1138236585

Other reading materials will include but not limited to: UN Daily News (, and other online materials.

Useful Web Sites: United Nations (;  

Students are encouraged to follow current political developments around the world. One way to do this is to read international news online in the The Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and The Washington Post. Another approach is to combine reading of periodicals such as The Nation, or The Economist or Financial Times with nightly broadcasts from sources such as CNN, ABC News, National Public Radio, BBC News, or the PBS News Hour. You can access major newspapers electronically via the political science department web site at



Class Attendance: Students are encouraged to attend class and be prepared to discuss the readings and current international issues in the news. Attendance will constitute 50 points of your final grade. You are allowed ONE absence by the professor during the course of the semester. There will be 5 points deducted for each absence after the ONE ALLOWED.

Readings: Assigned readings should be completed before the class period in which they will be discussed. Lectures are meant to give general clarity to information you absorb from the textbook and other reading materials assigned.

Exams and Quizzes: The final exam will be comprehensive essays only and will be worth 100 points. There will be unannounced Pop-Quizzes in class. You must be in class to take a pop quiz. The purpose of the pop quiz is to encourage students to read the assigned chapter/other materials as well as follow current political developments around the world before coming to class.

Group Learning Activities (GLA)
The class will be divided into groups for in-class group learning activities. GLAs are designed to foster cooperative learning among students. A student must be in class to participate and earn points for these activities. Each GLA is worth 5 points (Tentative).

Country profile (EOSS): Each delegate will submit a country profile for the country assigned to them for the EOSS. 3-4 typed pages, double space (See Appendix). This is worth 25 points. Due Date: 9/30/19

Policy Statement/Policy Paper (EOSS): Each delegate will submit a policy paper for the agenda item on the agenda of their assigned committee in the End of Semester Simulation. One typed page, single space (See Appendix). This is worth 25 points. Due Date: 10/21/19

Resolution (EOSS): Delegation group grade. Each group/coalition will submit a Resolution on the item on the agenda of the assigned Committee in the EOSS. This is worth 50 points. Due Date: 12/2/19

End of Semester (EOSS) Simulation: Delegate grade based on Participation Effectiveness. (See Appendix). This is worth 100 points. Event Date:
(Tuesday, 12/3/19 – Tentative)

Individual MUN Prep Book/Binder. (See Appendix). Due on the day of End of Semester Simulation. This is worth 50 points.

**** MUN EOSS Training – To develop public speaking, Resolution writing, Parliamentary procedure and other skills needed to effectively participate in the EOSS you are required to participate in the weekly EOSS training. A student must be in class to participate in the training session during each class period. This is part of your attendance grade.


Plagiarismis a form of academic dishonesty that is taken very seriously by the Cerritos College Faculty (Cerritos College General Catalog, page 33). Any attempt at plagiarizing will result in an automatic grade of “F” in the assignment involved.

Attendance: It is the student's responsibility to participate fully in class once enrollment is complete. However, should it become necessary to withdraw from class, it is the student's responsibility to present a signed drop card to the Admissions and Records Office before the deadline to drop. THE ULTIMATE RESPONSIBILITY OF WITHDRAWAL FALLS TO THE STUDENT. (See Fall 2019 Schedule of Classes Page 21 for withdrawal information).

Student Responsibility to Learn: I expect each student to take responsibility for their learning in this class. That means, you are first accountable to yourself and then to the instructor for your efforts in this class. Ask yourself, “Am I doing my very best to earn the grade I desire from this class?” I look forward to assisting you in your learning but you must be willing to seek assistance. REMEMBER, YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR YOUR LEARNING AND GRADE IN THIS CLASS!!

The Honesty Code: Be honest with yourself so you can find the courage to succeed…

My 3 Rs: Reading; (W)riting; and Researching skills are 3 essential skills students must acquire in order to be successful as professionals.

Disabilities Related Accommodations: It is my priority to provide on a flexible and individualized basis, reasonable accommodations to students who have documented disability conditions. Please let me know immediately or come to office hour if you have a disability for which special accommodations will be required.

International Students: It is my priority to provide on a flexible and individualized basis, reasonable accommodations to international students who are not familiar with the American political system. Please let me know immediately or come to office hour if you are an international student in this situation.

Veterans: It is my priority to provide, on a flexible and individualized basis, reasonable accommodations to students who are veterans. If you are a veteran please see me immediately after the orientation. “Veterans you have served us. Now we are here to serve you.” Please visit the Veteran’s Resource Center at: or go to VRC Building (Veteran’s Resource Center Building located near the Student Center and Bookstore) for available services designed specifically to help you succeed in college. 

Classroom Decorum: Students are encouraged to actively participate in class discussions by asking or answering questions during lectures; however, disturbances will not be tolerated. This includes private conversations and/or eating during class. I will enforce this rule for the benefit of all who are willing, committed, and determined to excel in this course.

There will be no eating, drinking, or chewing of gum allowed in this classroom.

Students are advised to turn off cell phones, pagers, and all other electronic devices EXCEPT FOR eText only, and when permitted by the professor for academic research purpose. Absolutely No Picture Taking and Recording is Allowed in the class without the professor’s permission.

Grades: Grades will not reflect a student’s political opinion in this course. However, I care about how you arrive at your conclusions, how you support your conclusions, and how well you understand other opinions.


Using the Syllabus: I reserve the right to make changes to this syllabus whenever it becomes necessary in order to foster students’ learning in this class.



A. Grades will be based on the following:

Final exam                                                                          100 points
Policy Paper (EOS)                                                               25 points
Resolution (EOS)                                                                  50 points
Country Profile (EOS)                                                          25 points
EOS Simulation (Satisfactory participation)                  100 points
Class attendance                                                                 50 points
Binder                                                                                    50 points
Pop Quizzes (TBA)
GLA             (TBA)
Total                                              400 points possible (Tentative

B. Grading Scale: (Tentative)

90-100%           = A = 360-400 points
80-89%             = B = 320-356 points
70-79%             = C = 280-316 points
60-69%             = D = 240-276 points
Below 60%       = F = less than 240 points

See page 23 of Cerritos College General Catalog


Lecture, Reading, and Assignment Schedule (Tentative)


Week One  (8/19)                                   

Syllabus; Students Intro; Intro of MUN Club
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Week Two (8/26)                  
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 1:     International Organizations and Theories of International Relations
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 1
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Pages 93-191  
Objective: Our primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to describe the theoretical basis of International Organization, Intergovernmental Organizations, and the theories of International Relations that help us understand how they operate.

Week Three (9/2)     LABOR DAY HOLIDAY

Week Four (9/9)
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 2: Origins and History of the United Nations
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 2 (pages 34-48)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapters 3
Objective: The primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to identify the evolutionary roots of the UN System.

Week Five (9/16)
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 3: Origins and History of the United Nations
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 2 (pages 48-76)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 16
Objective: The primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to identify the events leading to the crafting of the UN.
EOSS Training

Week Six (9/23)  
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 4: Organization of the UN System
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 4 (pages 118-141)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 16 & 30
Objective: Our primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to identify the different institutions of the UN System.
EOSS Training

Week Seven (9/30) 
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 5: UN Specialized Agencies and Programs
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 4 (pages 141-165)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapters 15
Objective: The primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to describe the specialized agencies, programs and funds of the UN System.
EOSS Training

Week Eight (10/7)
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 6: Maintaining International Peace and Security
Readings:  Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 5 (pages 166-192)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 30
Objective: In this lecture and chapter our primary objective is to define the meaning of international peace and security; to understand the concept of collective security and its role in the UN.
Country Profile Due
EOSS Training

Week Nine (10/14)
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 7: Twenty-First Century Challenges to Collective Security.                 
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapters 5 (pages 192-207)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 37
Objective: In this lecture and chapter our primary objective is to understand the challenges to collective security.
EOSS Training

Week Ten (10/21) 
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 8: UN Peacekeeping and Nation-building Missions
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 6 (pages 208-214)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 36
Objective: Our primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to understand the UN role in state peacekeeping.
EOSS Training

Week Eleven (10/28) 
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 9: UN and Nation-building
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 6 (pages 214-239)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 38
Objective: Our primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to understand the UN role in nation-building.
EOSS Training

Week Twelve (11/14)
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 10: UN and Human Rights
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 7 (pages 240-262)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 34
Objective: In this lecture and chapter our primary objective is to understand the meaning of human rights and how the UN has been responding to issues of human rights.
EOSS Training

Week Thirteen (11/11) VETERANS DAY HOLIDAY

Week Fourteen (11/18)
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 11: UN and Women’s Rights
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 7 (pages 262-270)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 22 & 23
Objective: In this lecture and chapter our primary objective is to understand how the UN is responding to issues of women’s rights and the role of NGOs in dealing with the problem.
EOSS Training

Week Fifteen (11/25)
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 12: UN, Economic Development and Human Security
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 8 (pages 271-283)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 46
Objective: Our primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to understand the role of the UN in economic development efforts in poorer nations of the world.
EOSS Training            

Week Sixteen (12/2)
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)                                                        
Lecture 13:  UN, Environmental and Health Policies and Human Security
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 8 (pages 283-305)
***Weiss and Wilkinson, Chapter 45, 48, 50
Objective: The primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to understand the role of the UN in global environmental politics, health policies and the concepts of sustainable development and human development.
EOSS Training

End of Semester Simulation – TUESDAY, 12/3/19 (Tentative)

Week Seventeen (12/9)
Practice the Mindset to Learn (Mindfulness/Consciously Learning - STOBRELL)

Lecture 14: The Future of the UN: UN Charter, International Law and UN Reform
Readings: Moore and Pubantz, Chapter 3
Objective: Our primary objective in this lecture and chapter is to understand the original provisions of the UN Charter and various UN Reform efforts over the years aimed to sustain its future existence.

Review For Final Exam

Week Eighteen (12/16)

Final Exam     Monday 12/16/19     6pm – 8pm




POL 250 MUN Far West Participation

The assignments in POL 250 are structured around the requirements for participation in the Model UN of the Far West Conference. Ask your Head Delegate about any aspect of these deliverables.

From the MUNFW website:


POL 250 MUN Far West Participation


Committee Guide
Committee Rules




Every Delegate is required to submit to the MUN of the Far West a set of pre-conference documents consisting of a country profile, one policy statement for each issue on the agenda and one resolution for each committee the country has a seat. The due dates below pertain to MUNFW deadlines, not to the POL 250 class.


MUN Far West Requirements:

Country Profile is due 30 days prior to conference - (1 per country)

Policy Statements are due 30 days prior to conference - (1 per issue, 1 additional for UNGA = 3 total for each student)

Resolution is due 20 days prior to conference - (1 per student)


All conference documents may be submitted to MUNFW by postal mail, fax or by email. Our preference is by email. If submitting documents by email, you must use the following naming conventions for all documents submitted or you may lose points.


Country Profile =  country name - profile . ext              example-  (Angola-Profile.doc )

 Policy Papers =  country-committee name - policy 1 . ext         example-  (Angola-3rd-policy1.doc )
                           country-committee name - policy 2 . ext


If your school is representing more than one country, do not send one email with mixed policy papers. It is best to send all the policy papers for each country in one email with multiple attachments and the second country in another email with attachments. Make note in your email that the attached docs are for country xxx. DO NOT PUT ALL THE POLICY PAPERS IN ONE DOCUMENT FILE. Each policy paper must be a single file.

Resolutions =  country-committee name - res . ext               example -  (angola-ga-res.doc )

As with policy papers you should not mix countries in one email and because there is only one resolution due for each committee there is no need to have a number after the RES.



Country Profile

All delegations are required to submit a profile of the country they will be representing at conference. This 3 - 5 page document must be submitted to MUN Far West at least 30 days prior to conference (earlier due date for POL 250). This profile should be in narrative form, not a listing of facts. It should use section heads and by type in single space format. If this paper is also to be a class assignment, it is suggested that you do the research, write the paper and then layout one version for class and another version for submission to MUNFW. The delegation should work together as a group on this project and it should reflect their knowledge of the country and their ability to communicate that knowledge clearly and concisely.


The profile should demonstrate that the delegation has a thorough understanding of the country, both within the United Nations and in the global political arena. The profile should provide an overview of the country including: general information regarding type of government and its relations with its citizens, regional neighbors, and the international community; the type of economy and basic indicators of its condition; type of military, its size, strength, and the government’s willingness and capacity to use military force; its recent political history and an analysis of the internal and/or external obstacles facing successful attainment of known political goals and policies; and any notable cultural aspects of the society.


Outline for Country Profile

(cite all sources as footnotes (Chicago Style Manual) and all works consulted or researched in the List of References as a separate last page). 


Title Page -

* Graphic of Flag and Map of Country

* Delegation Members and Committee Assignments

* Each delegate shall sign their name indicating their review and vetting of the information and strategy.  Signature lines will be included on the title page.

* Fundamentals:

Gross Domestic Product

GDP per capita

Total Population and Median Age


Page 2 and Beyond:

Body of Country Profile -

A. Government

  1. Type of government, noting if recently changed (type, not the leadership)
  2. Relations with citizens, regional neighbors, international community


B. Economy

  1. Type of economy
  2. Current state of the economy
  3. Major industry
  4. Level of imports/exports

C. Military

  1. Types (army, navy, air force)
  2. Size, strength, and capacity
  3. Willingness and capacity to use military force


D. Culture (include only if notable items)

  1. Dominate religion and recent problems, if any
  2. Immigration or migration, recent problems if any
  3. Ethnic, tribal, race considerations
  4. Values
  5. Major concerns


E. Geography

  1. Absence or presence of important resource
  2. Land--locked or with natural harbors (political impact)


F. United Nations Policy (the most important section)

  1. Country voting bloc
  2. Level of Participation
  3. Relationship of UN policy to domestic and foreign policy goals
  4. Overall strategy in the UN


List of References

Note: This general profile should be the work of the entire delegation with each delegate completing a portion. The most important portion of this profile is paragraph F-4. This section should receive the most attention in your research, as it will become the primary guide at conference regarding your countries role in a given committees activities. It should also get a full paragraph in the profile specifically laying out what the country hopes to achieve and how they plan to do so. And you will not find this on a page in your research, it must be sifted out of the whole body of research work. The entire delegation needs to meet and discuss what each believes the goals and means to achieving those goals are. From this you will be able to assemble the last paragraph in your country profile. Remember - this document is due 30 days prior to Far West conference and submitted in a coherent narrative form.

In addition, the delegation should prepare a document for their use that includes a strategy presenting a defense of your position on the issues, potential arguments against your position and possible responses. You should also prepare a list of supporting nations and opposing nations, and a discussion detailing the most likely path to a compromise solution. This information will assist delegates during the informal caucusing session (pictured above) and during debate in the committee.


Policy Statements (50 points each (150 points for the three agenda items)) –

A written policy statement is REQUIRED of all delegates participating in the Annual Session of the MUNFW.  A policy statement (or position paper) should be prepared by each delegate for each agenda item that will be discussed (UNGA delegates will be given a third issue in class).

The statements are to be based upon the knowledge that the delegation has acquired of its country and of the agenda items. A country’s general policies are frequently found in speeches presented to the General Assembly during general debate; these are usually summarized in Monthly Chronicle. The embassy or information office of the country in question might be able to supply such data; a list of these information sources is located here.

The written statements serve several functions for the delegate preparing for the conference. First, it provides an important exercise in the concise expression of national policy views. Second, it provides an important guide post in the preparation efforts. Third, it will provide a policy reference file in each committee during the conference session. Fourth, hopefully it will foster clearer, more concise and directed committee discussions.

Policy statements must incorporate the following format to be considered for the Delegation certificate program. The policy statement must be one--half page to one page in length. The statement must be typed, single spaced and only one agenda item per page. It must have the country’s name in the upper left corner followed by the committees name on the next line and the agenda topic on the third line. It must consist of three paragraphs and contain the following:

The first paragraph
a. Background of the main elements of the problem or concern (e.g. brief historical overview of the issue)

b. UN action taken in the past on the issue

c. Can include, if appropriate, positions on the issue of major blocs or groups of nations;

                The second paragraph
a. Provide the current status of the issue

b. Current action or resolutions by the UN (i.e. current or last session of UN);


                The third paragraph
a. Main reasons that support your country's point of view or position on the issue, or strongest reasons favoring opposition and strongest points of rebuttal,

b. Solution or resolution your country might propose to the issue.


The proposed solution should be directed toward the issue at the international level and not toward the selected country’s internal policy.

The entire set MUST be submitted 30 days before the annual Session. Failure to submit policy statements may result in the withholding of credentials and/or failure to meet the requirements for a Delegation Certificate. Copies of all policy statements will be on file in each body and accessible to all delegates during the session. If the selected country has a seat on the Security Council, the Delegate seated in the Security Council is also required to submit three (3) policy papers on any three (3) topics they believe are important to their country’s peace and security.

Important note: If the selected country has 5 seats and the delegation only has 4 delegates, the delegation is still responsible for the submission of policy papers and resolutions for all 5 seats to which the country is assigned. Failure to submit the required paperwork may be cause for the withholding of credentials and the loss of a Delegation certificate.





Sample Policy Statement

Sample Policy Statement




First Paragraph






Second Paragraph







Third Paragraph





The status of Jerusalem is the most sensitive issue in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict due to the religious significance of the Old City of Jerusalem to the world's three monotheistic religions - Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. In 1947 the United Nations General Assembly voted on Resolution A/RES/181(II) to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish states on the basis of land for peace, simultaneously determining the status of Jerusalem as a separate entity of the UN Trusteeship Council. The Partition Plan was not implemented due to Arab rejection of the plan followed by the Israeli war of independence in 1949 and the annexation of Jerusalem and occupation of the territories designated to Palestine in 1967. Proclamation of Jerusalem as Israel's undivided capital was followed by Palestinian claims of sovereignty and intentions to set the capital in East Jerusalem. Talks at Camp David in July 2000 for the first time included face-to-face negotiations on this point, but broke down in part over the issue of which side would have sovereignty over the land on which the holy sites stand.


Today, Israel considers Jerusalem its official capital while foreign diplomatic missions are located in officially recognized Tel Aviv. Israel and Palestinian authorities both regard the status of Jerusalem as a non-negotiable issue, refusing to make concessions and insisting on their claims. In addition, attempts to place international peacekeepers in the conflict zone have been vetoed by the Security Council. On March 12, 2002, nearly 18 months after the start of a Palestinian uprising, the Security Council has approved a resolution "affirming a vision" of a Palestinian state living side by side with Israel within secure and recognized borders. It is the first resolution on the Middle East to be approved by the Security Council since October 2000.


The policy of Colombia towards the Middle East issue in general, including the issue of Jerusalem, is formed in accordance with the Non Aligned Movement positions. It reiterates its support for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as a capital city, the implementation of the Mitchell Report's recommendations, and the deployment of a credible international presence in the Occupied Palestinian Territory. Colombia proposes to partition Jerusalem into two capitals with internationally recognized borders according to the Armistice Demarcation Line of 1949, which existed before the 1967 war. Colombia believes that it is necessary to establish a joint administration of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish leaders over the holy sites, with prior UN Trusteeship over the Old City of Jerusalem for a temporary transition period.




* * * Each policy statement must contain 3 paragraphs as the above sample illustrates. If you have only 1 or 2 paragraphs, points will be deducted. There should only be 1 issue per page, if 2 or 3 issues are on a single page, points will be deducted. You must have the heading on the page - as illustrated in the sample -containing the country name, committee name and agenda topic in that order, if not points will be deducted.

Submit policy papers by email as attachments. All of the countries policy papers should be submitted at the same time as individual attachments to one email.




A resolution is a formal statement of opinion or recommendation to be presented to the appropriate organ of the MUNFW for adoption. Armed with a full understanding of its country’s stand on an issue, a delegation can draft a suitable resolution on the issue. A resolution must be directly concerned with the agenda item and must accurately represent the position and national policy of its proposer and sponsors. Resolutions are the basic decisions or statements of the constituent units of the United Nations.

While drafted by individual states or groups thereof, they declare the official policy for the particular organ or body. While resolutions have a standard format, they may serve different purposes. Most resolutions state or reaffirm Assembly policy on a particular item. Some resolutions include an entire treaty, declaration, or convention, making it available for state accession. Some resolutions may give directions, requests, or suggestions to other UN bodies, other international bodies, or specific funds and programs. They may condemn the actions of a state, urge collective action, and, in the case of the Security Council, require compulsory compliance.

If the proper format is followed, resolutions are fairly easy to construct. Each resolution is one single sentence. The subject of the sentence is the organ making the statement such as the General Assembly, Security Council, ECOSOC. The Main Committees, as subsidiary units of the General Assembly, use General Assembly as the subject of their resolutions. The remainder of the resolution can be divided into two parts: preambular and operative.

The preambular phrases are the justifications for action. They denote Charter authorization for action, past resolution precedents, and statements about the particular problem. They are similar to the given in a logic proof. All actions taken in the resolution should be deducible from or supported by the preambular phrases.

The policy portion of the resolution is composed of operative paragraphs. Each of these starts with a verb. Taken as a whole, the operatives should deal thoroughly with one complete idea and should be arranged in logical progression. They should not be a collection of unrelated thoughts or statements on a broad topic. Instead, the resolution should deal as completely as possible with a given aspect of a topic. In doing so, more states can become involved in the resolution process, the quality of the resolutions will improve, and the overall treatment of a topic will be more detailed and specific.

For committee consideration, draft resolutions must be submitted to the Substantive Officer at the end of General Debate on the particular item. The Chair shall specify the length of time during which resolutions will be accepted.

The Substantive Officer will screen the incoming resolutions for the following points:

- Is the resolution in the proper form?

- In the preambular portions, is there legal justification for the actions taken in the operative paragraphs?

- Do the operatives form a coherent whole, and are they fully developed (i.e., if a new program is established, how is it to be funded; if a committee is created, what will be its membership, means of selection, scope, and time of reporting)?

Delegations are required to submit one high quality draft resolution on one agenda item per body 20 days before conference. Additionally, delegates are urged to draft a resolution on each of the other agenda items before conference. All drafts should reflect the positions of and ideal outcomes desired by the countries represented. At conference however, it is stressed that these resolutions should not be expected to be submitted to Substantive Officers in their draft form or unchanged at conference. They should rather, be seen as starting points for discussion and negotiation with other countries during caucus sessions. It is expected that delegates, while striving to role play their countries accurately, should strive to combine the best parts of several draft resolutions.

The result should be the creation of a more comprehensive resolution on which there is greater consensus. It is these fuller and more widely considered resolutions which should be submitted to Substantive Officers.



Sample Resolution

Sample Resolution


Heading ----------->




Title --------------->


Body -------------->


Preambular Clauses










Operative Clauses



A/52/1/Res. 1
 General Assembly
 LII Session
 Syrian Arab Republic



The General Assembly,


   Stressing the importance of the Holy City of Jerusalem for mankind,


   Deeply alarmed by the repeated escalation of violence in the Middle East,


   Affirming the inadmissibility of military territorial acquisition,


   Reaffirming the commitment to the Security Council resolutions 242 (1967), 252 (1968), 338 (1973), 478 (1980), and 672 (1990),


   Strongly emphasizing the necessity to ensure a just and comprehensive peace in the region,


  1. Urges the sides involved in the conflict to cease fire;


  2. Demands that Israel withdraw all its military forces from territories occupied since 1967;


  3. Expresses its full support for the creation of a Palestinian State with official capital in Jerusalem;


  4. Urges the members of his body to impose economic restrictions on Israel based on acts of aggression, numerous violations of human rights and international law under the condition of Israeli government's rejection to meet the requirements of this resolution;


  5. Insists that Israel, the occupying power, respects the Fourth Geneva Convention on the Protection of civilians in armed conflict;


  6. Stresses the necessity to guarantee the unimpeded access to Holy places to all religions;


  7. Strongly supports the competent national authorities in safeguarding and preserving cultural property;


  8. Authorizes ECOSOC, the United Nations Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People, and UNESCO to coordinate the monitoring process on the implementation of the points of this resolution;


  9. Reaffirms its commitment to the peacemaking process in the Middle East.




Resolution Format


The heading of a resolution should appear in the upper left corner of the first page in single-spaced lines. On the first line should appear the name of the body the resolution originated in (i.e. Third Committee) and the name should be spelled out in full. The second line should contain the number designation of the annual session during which the resolution is being submitted (52nd Session). On the third line should be the official name of the country submitting the resolution followed by co-sponsors if any.


Each Resolution must have a title briefly describing the resolution’s thrust and content. The title of the resolution should be centered a few lines below the heading and be all capital letters. If the title is long and is typed on more than one line, it should be single--spaced with each line centered.



The text is composed of two parts: the preambular clauses, and operative clauses. Each clause, preambular and operative, is written as separate paragraphs with the first line of each indented five spaces and the introductory words underlined. Each is single--spaced, with double spaces between the clauses. If a clause has sub--clauses, the main clause ends with a colon (:) and the sub--clauses are lettered (a), (b), (c), etc., and end with a comma, if preambular, or a semi--colon, if operative.


Prefacing clauses contain the justification for the resolution’s submission and passage. They begin with words such as Taking note of, Recalling, Believing, or Cognizant of. Each clause ends with a comma. Operative clauses denote the actions to be taken. They begin with verbs such as Applauds, Requests, Demands, Condemns, and Declares. Each clause ends with a semi--colon, except the last clause which ends with a period. Each operative clause is numbered.



Initiating Phrases


Preambular Clauses

Preambular Clauses

 Acknowledges with deep gratitude
 Alarmed and concerned
 Appreciating highly
 Basing itself
 Bearing in mind
 Also bearing in mind
 Calling attention
 Continuing to take the view
 Deeply alarmed
 Deeply appreciative
 Deeply concerned
 Deeply conscious
 Deeply disturbed

 Expressing concern
 Expressing deep concern
 Expresses its appreciation
 Expressing its mounting concern
 Expressing its regret
 Expressing its particular concern
 Expressing its satisfaction
 Expressing its support
 Firmly convinced
 Gravely concerned
 Having considered
 Having examined
 Having heard
 Having received
 Looking forward
 Noting also
 Noting with appreciation
 Noting with concern
 Noting with gratitude
 Noting with satisfaction
 Paying tribute
 Profoundly concerned

 Recalling further
 Reiterating its appreciation
 Reiterating its conviction
 Reiterating its dismay
 Seriously concerned
 Solemnly declares
 Solemnly proclaims
 Stresses its desire
 Strongly emphasizes
 Strongly supporting
 Supporting fully
 Taking into account
 Taking into consideration
 Taking note
 Taking note also
 Taking note with satisfaction
 Welcoming also


Operative Clauses

Operative Clauses

 Accepts with deep appreciation
 Acknowledges with appreciation
 Adopts Affirms
 Affirms its confidence
 Again expresses its special alarm
 Again urges
 Also notes
 Also notes with satisfaction
 Also welcomes
 Appreciates deeply
 Calls for Call upon
 Calls once more upon
 Categorically condemns
 Also commends
 Commends and encourages
 Declares its firm opposition
 Declares its solidarity

Demands once more
 Deplores Determines
 Drawing attention
 Draws the attention
 Expresses concern
 Expresses grave concern
 Expresses its appreciation
 Further expresses its appreciation
 Expresses its conviction
 Expresses its deep concern and condemnation
 Expresses its full support
 Expresses its gratitude Expresses its profound concern at and
 unequivocal condemnation
 Expresses its satisfaction
 Expresses the desirability
 Fully supports
 Highly appreciates
 Notes with appreciation
 Notes with interest
 Notes with satisfaction
 Once again urges
 Places on special record

 Reaffirming its deep concern
 Recalls Recommends
 Reiterates its appeal
 Reiterates its call
 Reiterates its firm support
 Renews its appeal
 Renews its invitation
 Renews its request
 Also requests
 Further requests
 Shares the concern
 Stresses Also stresses
 Strongly condemns
 Takes note
 Takes note with appreciation
 Takes note with satisfaction
 Urgently appeals
 Welcomes also
 Welcomes further
 Welcomes with satisfaction




Conference Participation

  1.  Conference participation effectiveness. (100 points)

Conference Effectiveness of Participation:

  1. Effectiveness of participation means accurately role playing your country’s strategy in the UN.
  2. “Effective” also includes attendance at sessions, speeches given, negotiations undertaken, overall personal conduct during meetings and other sessions.
  3. Note: Personal conduct that violates University policy or other laws and regulations may have direct negative consequences on the course grade above and beyond the immediate participation grade.
  1.         Binder (50 points)
    1. The Binder will be evaluated on the basis of its organization (tab dividers by topic), completeness of research, and evidence of conference participation (position papers, proposed resolutions, actions and votes taken).
    2.            Also include in your Binder all drafts and other committee communications.



A Fair and Balanced Guide to Citing Works
Between Conflicted Online and Offline Worlds

(By Dr. Larry Martinez, California State University, Long Beach, January 2011)


Plagiarism is the theft of another's words or ideas.  Because you will use outside sources to support your own writing, you must be aware of proper use and documentation of these sources. Whether intentional or accidental, plagiarism constitutes a serious breach of both academic and ethical standards--it can lead to a failing grade for the assignment, and/or for the course and is possible grounds for academic discipline by the university. Refer to the Cerritos College Catalog for additional information.

Any use of an outside source of words, phrases or ideas must be attributed and cited in the text of your submitted paper.  For POL 250 written work (unless otherwise indicated, such as the Policy Statements (not Resolutions)) you will use “Chicago Style” footnotes as documented at this website:

Each submitted written assignment will have sources cited in the text AND documented in the List of References page attached at the end of the assignment.  Follow these guidelines exactly.


In The Text: A Book or Periodical Source



Using your word processor footnote function (do not use Microsoft’s Works), insert a footnote number following the section of text or quote.  At the bottom of the page, a superscripted number will appear:

5. Ziring, et. al., The United Nations, p. 322.

Note: A direct quotation longer than three lines of text is to be indented and single-spaced.  Example:


Paul Light emphasizes how the source of a problem is central to the policy process, in that

[t]he source of the problem clearly matter to policymakers. Some sources, particularly interest groups, have a great stake in making sure their cause reaches the agenda. That is why they exist in the first place, and most certainly why they make campaign donations.3


On the other hand, Paul Light assigns Rush Limbaugh the onus of reducing America’s collective IQ by at least 2 ...


In The Text: A Web Source

Nirvana borrowed much of its inspiration from Britney Spears’s brilliant adaptation of hip-hop themes, especially those espousing post-modern angst (Cobain, 1998,


How to Compile the List of References:

The final page of your paper will be titled List of References.  It will have three subsections, "Books," "Periodicals," and "Other Sources."



Author. (Publication Year). Title. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.
Light, P.C.  (1997).  The Lighter Side of Politics. New York: St. Martin's Press.


Author. (Publication Year). Title. Name of Publication, (Volume #) Issue #, page numbers.
Gates, B. (1998).  Why I am worth more than gold.  Mad Magazine, (22) 3,  43-45.

Internet Sources:

Author, A. (Year of Access). Title of page.(Posting Date if available).
Cobain, Kurt. (2003).  Calling all Nirvana Phreaks. (February 20, 1998).


The finished List of References page will look like this:


List of References



Light, P. C. (1999). A Delicate Balance. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Springer, J. (1998). How I Bring Enlightenment and Intelligence to Millions of Viewers. Podunk, CA: Hammond Press.


Gates, B. (1999). Why I am worth more than gold. Mad Magazine, (22) 3, 43-45.
Lewinsky, M. (1999). How to know and play the rules of the game. Cosmopolitan Magazine, (66) 8, 333-335.


Other Sources:

Cobain, K. (2003). Calling all Nirvana Phreaks. (February 20, 1998).

U.S. Congress. (1999). Committee Report of the House Appropriations Committee, Hearing on July 20, 1999. Washington, DC: (December 10, 1999).







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